2019

P Netrdová, J Blažek (2019)
Journal of Maps 15 (1), 69-76

This study presents an analysis and visualisation of the evolutionary dynamics of unemployment at the municipal level in Czechia during the global economic crisis. The analysis is based on a monthly time series of unemployment data at a detailed territorial level. Namely, there are 6,258 municipalities in Czechia, which makes it particularly suitable for a detailed investigation of the unfolding and evolution of the recent crisis. Our focus is on analysing and mapping the spatiotemporal patterns of unemployment using variability and autocorrelation measures. Given the detailed territorial level of our analysis, large-scale maps will be presented to assist with interpretation and analytical conclusions. The Main Map (1:600 000) shows the categories of municipalities according to the rate of unemployment and its evolutionary dynamics. Three additional maps (1:1 400 000) visualise the results of spatiotemporal analyses.

TRANSFER OF JAPANESE-STYLE MANAGEMENT TO THE CZECH REPUBLIC: THE CASE OF JAPANESE MANUFACTURING FIRMS

K Natsuda, J Sýkora, J Blažek (2019)
Asia Europe Journal, 1-23

This study examines the level of application of Japanese-style management to the Czech Republic from the perspective of hybridization, by employing a survey of Japanese manufacturing firms based in this country. The survey reveals that the Japanese system of production control is strictly enforced, while work organization, labour relations and group consciousness have been—despite targeted practices used by Japanese companies to facilitate application of the Japanese system—largely adapted to the local conditions. Furthermore, this study identifies the transitional process from relying upon Japanese expatriates towards engaging local human resources in the parent-subsidiary relationship. In addition, even though the Japanese-style procurement method is applied with a large number of local suppliers, the local content ratio nevertheless remains relatively low in the Czech Republic. Overall, Japanese manufacturing firms, via their vigorous effort to transfer their distinctive management style, are challenging European business practices and Czech socio-cultural traditions, even though the level of hybridization is strongly variegated according to particular management spheres.

USING MIXED METHOD APPROACH IN MEASURING EFFECTS OF TRAINING IN FIRMS: CASE STUDY OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND SUPPORT

M Pelucha, V Kveton, O Potluka (2019)
Evaluation and program planning 73, 146-155

Public support of training in firms corresponds to the long-term importance of the quality of human capital in the competitiveness of firms and nations. Thus, the EU supports such training via the European Social Fund (ESF). The evaluation community evaluates the support by using either qualitative or quantitative methods. The simultaneous application of these two approaches is rare. The purpose of this paper is to combine quantitative (counterfactual impact evaluation) and qualitative (qualitative comparative analysis) methods in order to fill the methodological gap. Based on the combination of both approaches, it explores their strengths, complementarity and disadvantages to evaluate public support for employee training in the Czech Republic. The combination of methods makes it possible to identify not only the impacts but also their causes. Linking the ESF support to corporate competitiveness is crucial for demonstrating the effectiveness of public spending.

INNOVATION-BASED REGIONAL CHANGE IN EUROPE: CHANCES, RISKS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS: SOUTH MORAVIA: FROM A QUICK FIX BY FOREIGN INVESTMENTS TOWARDS A BOTTOM-UP POLICY LEARNING?

J Blazek, D Uhlir, V Kveton, D Marek (2019), eds. K Koschatzky, T Stahlecker

A central assumption in current debates on the geography of innovation is that a firm's location affects its ability to innovate (Isaksen and Karlsen 2016). Conceptualised as geographical proximity, it is argued that co-location of firms and actors such as universities and intermediaries effectively supports the emergence of innovation, especially in larger agglomerations. This assumption rests on two theoretical building blocks: localisation and urbanisation economies. The idea of localisation economies goes back to Marshall (1927) who suggested that a regional specialisation of economic activities provides pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits to firms from related industries, for instance through eased exchange of knowledge and common use of regional resources such as a specialised labour market. Discussed in terms of urbanisation economies (Jacobs 1969), the diversity of economic activities and actors and the associated potential of cross-fertilisation provide further positive externalities. Diverse economic structures bring together heterogeneous actors and facilitate a fruitful exchange of resources.

REGIONAL EMBEDDEDNESS, RELATEDNESS AND INTER-REGIONAL LINKAGES AMONG LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

V Kveton, K Safr (2019)
European Planning Studies

This paper aims at a comprehension of existing intra-/inter-regional production flows in a dynamically transforming, export-oriented economy in Central Europe. Drawing on evolutionary economic geography combined with input–output approaches, we have assessed the sectoral compositions and relationships between regions from a buyer-supplier interactions perspective. Inspired by contemporary literature we applied concepts of regional embeddedness, relatedness and vertically related variety. Conceptually we argue that the degree of embeddedness of regions is differentiated and spatially non-random. The differences will depend to a large extent on the economic characteristics and on the ability of key actors and institutions in these regions to respond actively to changing opportunities and threats. Empirically we have found: that economically more developed regions are relatively more embedded in terms of production flows and have greater sectoral variety, whereas regions with high export-dependence are economically backward, and have higher concentration of industry and negative associations with innovation activity and overall innovation potential. The intensity of interregional production flows increases as the regional economies vary more from each other, but beyond a certain level of structural difference the rate of mutual flows decreases; and that the intensity of interregional relations depends on the relatedness of the economic bases.

THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC R&D SUBSIDIES ON FIRMS' COMPETITIVENESS: REGIONAL AND SECTORAL SPECIFICS IN EMERGING INNOVATION SYSTEMS

V Květoň, P Horák (2019)
Applied Geography 94, 119-129

This article examines regional and sectoral impacts of R&D subsidies on firms in Czechia during the period 2007–2014. Driven by still-developing innovation policies where regional innovation systems are emerging, R&D support plays an important role for activating regional potential. To explore this we employed a geographical perspective and a combination of two counterfactual approaches. Our results revealed that R&D support has a higher net effect on companies operating in regions with lower R&D intensity. In the most advanced regions, the differences in effects between supported and unsupported entities are very small and targeted support no longer plays such a significant role. In contrast, indirect tax support associated with innovation activity is applied much more often. Furthermore, our case study in the South Moravian Region revealed that the impact of R&D support is changing over time and reflects from economic cycles. It has been confirmed that direct R&D support in this advanced regional innovation system is associated negatively with firms' competitiveness.

P Netrdova, V Nosek (2019)
GEOGRAFIE 123 (2), 225-251

The paper is focused on the geographical differentiation of the population in Czechia between the years 1980 and 2011. Data from population censuses were adjusted in all years to the municipal structure in 2011, so an analysis of evolution on a municipal level could be undertaken. Besides analyzing geographical differentiation of the population for different types of phenomena (demographic, social, and economic) and its evolution, we study underlying processes (such as concentration/deconcentration, convergence/divergence) and conditional factors and mechanisms. When studying geographical differentiation, we distinguish between simple regional differentiation measured by standard statistical measures, relative regional differentiation measured by Theil index decomposition, and spatial differentiation quantified by Moran’s I. Thee empirical results show that the geographical differentiation of the population in the transformation period and beyond has been steadily decreasing in a majority of studied variables. Variables with increasing geographical differentiation of the population are always connected with specific conditional factors and mechanisms. Moreover, the geographical differentiation of the population has shifted to lower geographical levels.

SPEED DATING: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN A FRAGMENTED REGIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM?

V Kadlec (2019)
AUC Geographica 54 (1), 57-66

The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the impacts of speed dating on the enhancement of university-business collaboration. With the example of the metropolitan region of Prague and its largest university  (Charles University), the case study on a speed dating event was organized by this University in the field of life science and medical devices. The results show, that speed dating itself has limited direct impact on real technology transfer. Only 1 of the 44 newly gained contacts was transformed into real cooperation in the form of consultancy. On the other hand, speed dating has several indirect impacts, which can moderate fragmentation of the regional innovation system, i.e. community and trust building, learning of common “language” and exchange of information. Direct impact can be enhanced by the follow-up activities of dedicated people (e.g. technology scouts or business development managers), who can encourage and support  creation of more new technology partnerships.

 

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